The Higgs Field. Explains that the Higgs Field is a Newtonian Field in Spacetime.

This webpage is the fourth page of the website
http://www.higgs-boson.org
It is strongly suggested to also read the precedent pages.

History of the Higgs Boson

(This part may be bypassed for a first reading)

In 1964 three groups of physicists released papers describing how masses could be given to particles.
This approach allowed the particles to obtain a mass, without breaking other parts of particle physics
theory that were already believed reasonably correct.
This idea became known as the Higgs Mechanism, which is described below.

Given a suitable accelerator and appropriate detectors, physicists recorded trillions of particles
colliding, analyzeed the data for collisions likely to be a Higgs boson.
Then they performed further analysis to test how likely it is that the results combined show a Higgs Boson does exist.
Finally, the discovery of the Higgs Boson was done on July 4, 2012, followed by a Nobel Prize in 2013.

The Higgs Mechanism

The Higgs mechanism is the process that gives mass to elementary particles.
The particles gain mass by interacting with a Higgs field.
An analogy, often cited by the CERN physicists, describes it as follows:

Images: Courtesy of CERN, Cern Document Server (CDS).

The Higgs Mechanism is often credited by academic Physicists with explaining the "origin" or "genesis" of mass.
But there is some doubt as to whether the Higgs mechanism provides sufficient insight into the actual nature of mass.
As Max Jammer puts it, "if a process generates mass, it may reasonably be expected to provide
information about the nature of what it generates as well".
In other words, the Higgs mechanism is accurate, it has been verified by experimentation,
but does not fully contribute to our understanding of the nature of mass.

The Higgs Field

In quantum field theory, the fundamental entities are not particles but fields, like the electromagnetic field.
Particles are represented by oscillations or persistent changes in these fields.
The oscillations in the electromagnetic field are called photons; those in the Higgs field are called Higgs Bosons.

To date, several moot points concerning the Higgs Field exist.
These points are discussed in the index page of this website.
Replacing the Higgs Field by a "Newtonian Field in spacetime created by the closed volumes of the
particles or atoms" solves these debatable points and extends the mass/Higgs Mechanism to gravitation.

The following figure represents:

a/ The Higgs Mechanism.
The figure (a) below shows that when the star moves through the party, she attracts the people closest to her.
This increases her resistance to movement.
In other words, an external observer could think that she aquires mass, just like a particle moving
through the Higgs Field. This scheme is called the "Higgs Mechanism".

b/ The "Spacetime Model" proposed in this website.
The basic principle is identical to the Higgs Mechanism.
The closed volumes of the four particles in orange curve spacetime.
In the center, the high density of spacetime will increase the resistance to movement of the blue particle.
An external observer could think that the blue particle aquires mass because it does not move freely,
just like in the Higgs Mechanism.

NOTE: This view is for teaching use only and shows that the two mechanisms are almost identical.
In reality, the particles in orange are not essential.
As explained in the "Mass" webpage, each closed volume, such as the blue particle, deforms spacetime.
In consequence, the blue particle creates itself its own "Higgs Field".

Differences

As we see, the Higgs Mechanism is identical to the Spacetime Model.
The major difference is the nature of the medium.

Higgs Theory
The medium is a "Higgs Field" that comes from the energy of a vacuum which permeates all space.
This is pure speculation because the Higgs Boson has always been detected near particles.
This means that we do not know if the Higgs Field permeates all space or is locally created by the particle itself or
by surrounding particles.
Moreover, the potential is missing if we consider that the "Higgs Field" comes from the energy of a vacuum.
Therefore, the "Higgs Field" is not in accordance with the "Theory of Potential".

Spacetime Model
In the theory proposed here, the medium is simply spacetime, discovered by Einstein in the 1910s.
Spacetime permeates all space but as a flat Minkovski spacetime, i.e. an "inactive" spacetime.
The "active" field which is at the origin of mass is mainly created by the particle itself.
The particles(s) involved in the interaction may also increase this field.
In a general manner, each particle curves spacetime, and this curvature increase its resistance to movement.
This mechanism explains why a particle gets mass, more exactly a "mass effect" since it is a virtual effect.
Please also note that the closed volume of the particle is at the origin of the scalar potential associated to
this "Newtonian Field in spacetime".
So, contrary to the Higgs Field, The "Spacetime Model" explanation is in full agrement with the "Theory of Potential".

Conclusions

We have seen in this website that replacing the Higgs Field by a "Newtonian Field in spacetime created by the
closed volumes of the particles or atoms" solves the following problems:

It gives a logical explanation of gravitation (see our webpage on gravitation),

It solves the problem of the missing Higgs Potential,

It fully explains the principle of the curvature of spacetime,

It makes the connection between the Higgs Mechanism and the curvature of spacetime (General Relativity),
i.e. gravitation (see the Mathematics webpage),

It gives the expression of mass in 4D (see the Mathematics webpage),

Since the expression of mass is in 4D, it solves the Einstein Field Equation inconsistency
concerning the homogeneity of its two sides f_{(x,y,z,t)} = g_{(m,x,y,z,t)}

It gives the solution of several enigmas of physics, such as "How can we explain E = mc^{2}"
or "How can light be curved near a mass" (see the next webpage "Applications").