This webpage is part of http://www.mass-gravity.com
The given example has been simplified because, strictly speaking, we should also take into account the equivalent mass of various binding energies (m = E/c2). Solving this problem requires to understand the equivalence E=mc2 and the wave-particle duality. Please see our Applications Webpage for E=mc2, and our website www.wave-particle-duality.com.
As we know, the probability density of presence of an electron at one location and at a given time is calculated from the normalized square of Ψ(r,t), from the Schrodinger Equation. As a result, orbitals look more like a cloud of probability than like a perfect line, as shown on the figure of the atom drawn in the Mass Webpage. This figure is only a pedagogical drawing that must be interpreted with great care.
Some orbitals are not elliptic, other do not . This figure is only a pedagogical drawing that must be interpreted with great care. The form of orbitals depends of their level (1s, 2s...).
Some atoms, such as super-fluids, have particular characteristics not mentioned here.
We also have exceptions in some nuclei. For example, closed and open volumes may be mixed in the few nuclei having a halo (see the next note). However, all these exceptions can be explained and do not question the theory proposed here.