## Atoms

This webpage is part of http://www.mass-gravity.com

#### Binding energy

The given example has been simplified because, strictly speaking, we should also take into account the equivalent
mass of various binding energies (m = E/c^{2}).
Solving this problem requires to understand the equivalence E=mc^{2} and the wave-particle duality.
Please see our Applications Webpage for E=mc^{2}, and our website www.wave-particle-duality.com.

#### Schrodinger Probability

As we know, the probability density of presence of an electron at one location and at a given time is calculated from the normalized square of Ψ(r,t), from the Schrodinger Equation. As a result, orbitals look more like a cloud of probability than like a perfect line, as shown on the figure of the atom drawn in the Mass Webpage. This figure is only a pedagogical drawing that must be interpreted with great care.

#### Orbitals

Some orbitals are not elliptic, other do not . This figure is only a pedagogical drawing that must be interpreted with great care. The form of orbitals depends of their level (1s, 2s...).

#### Special atoms

Some atoms, such as super-fluids, have particular characteristics not mentioned here.

#### Exceptions

We also have exceptions in some nuclei. For example, closed and open volumes may be mixed in the few nuclei having a halo (see the next note). However, all these exceptions can be explained and do not question the theory proposed here.