Part 3

# Radioactivity

Some types of radioactivity remain unexplained. For example, it is difficult to understand from where the electron comes in b- radioactivity, since we suppose that the neutron (u d d) does not have an electron.

This chapter provides answers to some questions about the origin of radioactivity within the framework of the Spacetime Model and the Wave Model here described. It must be noted that this page covers only the basic principle of radioactivity, not the behaviour of the electroweak force. Therefore, the W-Z bosons theory, which is correct in all points, is not discussed here.

This webpage is the 10th part of the website http://www.quarks-antimatter.com
It is strongly suggested to also read the previous pages.

## Introduction

Radioactivity always takes its source in spacetime movements inside the nucleus. If the internal configuration of the nucleus is unstable, the internal structure of the nucleus can be broken.

On a mathematical point of view, we know that a wave in a closed space produces reflective secondary waves. Inside the nucleus, such reflective secondary waves are permanently produced. These waves are mathematically represented by vectors, such as gluons, bosons etc... They are by no means particles but spacetime waves (see Part 2) idealized by vectors.

Thus, what we call "bosons exchanges" are nothing but EM waves and their own multiple reflections from any part.

We know that quarks, leptons, bosons, waves... are made of spacetime (see Parts 2 and 3). So, it is not exceptional to see a W- boson being transformed into an electron or anything else since W bosons and electrons are both made of spacetime.

## b- Radioactivity

Some suggestions of possible schemes are represented in the following figure.

The mass of a b- isotope is higher than the mass of the chemical element. There is an excessive number of neutrons. The Spacetime Model says that the neutron is a proton with an electron. Part 4 explains that spin is no longer an objection to this assertion. This tends to prove that the electron emitted from the nucleus comes from a neutron which is transformed into a proton. Whatever the origin of the electron, b- radioactivity tends to confirm that the neutron structure has at least one electron.

Note: The neutrino has not been represented in these figures.

## b+ Radioactivity

The mass of a b+ isotope is lower than the mass of the chemical element of reference. There is a lack of neutrons. Since a neutron is probably a proton with an electron, there is a lack of electrons too. One of the possibilities of the b+ radioactivity is a spacetime movement produced inside the nucleus which fills the missing electron in the neutron.

We know that a gamma ray moving near a nucleus splits into electron(s) and positron(s) if its energy is sufficient. This subject was discussed in part 2. It is not possible to be nearer to a nucleus that inside the nucleus itself. This means that any high energy EM wave crossing a nucleus or created inside the nucleus may produce electron-positron pair(s).

The electron issued from the gamma is immediately used to link protons into binomials, like deuterons, or into other configurations. The positron is ejected by way of a W+ boson and maybe a tunnel effect thru peripheral electrons. Other schemes are also possible but this one gives a rational explanation of b+ radioactivity in perfect accordance with experimentation.

Since a gamma, a positron and a W+ boson are all made of spacetime, waves are converted into particles and the converse. All these interactions are very simple to understand, but require complex mathematics to describe them (QCD).

It should be pointed out that all these phenomena are well known: e+e- annihilation, e+e- creation... Inside the nucleus, we probably have the same phenomena.

## a Radioactivity

Alpha radioactivity lets us suppose that the He configuration is already present inside the heavy nucleus. However, we do not have proof of this assertion.

In the previous webpages, we have shown that the binary structure of the nucleus is a reality which is validated by experimentation. Therefore, there is much greater chance that the alpha particle is built with two deuterons when these particles take off the nucleus, as the following figure shows.

## Electronic Capture

In accordance with the "Wave Model", the incoming electron has two possibilities:

• Either it surrounds the nucleus,
• or it links two protons to make a deuteron or another nucleus.