Two different fields are supported by spacetime: electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational fields.
These two fields can not be supported by only one and unique kind of spacetime.
The only way to solve this inconsistency is to consider that spacetime has a sub-structure.
There is no other alternative.
Here we show that spacetime would be parcelled out in a kind of "neutral electrons" called in this
document Spacetime Cells, or "sCells".
For the moment, it is only a suggestion, but this idea makes sense since there is no other alternative.
Moreover, this idea solves several enigmas of Modern Physics.
When Pasteur discovered invisible microorganisms, he was rejected by 100% of the Scientific Community.
Einstein (time dilatation), Dirac (antimatter), Monet (impressionism), Bizet (Carmen)... encountered
the same unjustified opposition to their innovative ideas.
Like microorganisms or neutrinos, sCells are invisible since they have no charge.
So, instead of saying as Pasteur detractors "Since I do not see sCells, they do not exist", taking into account that
we can not explain quantum mechanics, it is more appropriate to say "After all, why not? Let's study this possibility...".
Starting point: Enigma of the Charge of Proton
The proton charge is equal, in absolute value, to that of the electron: 1.602176565(35) x 10-19 Coulombs.
This equality between the proton and electron charges is incredibly well verified by experimentation.
So, the question is:
"How can we explain this equality of charge between the proton and electron?"
The positron is the antiparticle of the electron, i.e. identical electric charge but an opposite sign.
Therefore, the charge of the positron is exactly equal to that of the electron in absolute value.
This suggests that the proton could be made of positrons.
The problem is that the negative charge of the d quark also suggests that we could also find at least one
electron inside the proton.
Finally, three possibilities exist to explain this equality of charge.
In these different scenarios, u and d quarks are made with fractions of electrons/positrons (explanation in the
Proton = 2 positrons + 1 electron.
This possibility solves the problem of the charge but does not agree the mass.
The global mass of (2 positrons + 1 electron) is about 1,5 MeV whereas the mass of the proton is 600 times
more greater, about 938 MeV.
This possibility must not necessary be rejected but is very improbable.
Proton = 2 positrons + 1 electron + e+e- pairs.
For example, the proton could be made of 7 positrons and 6 electrons.
The e+e- pairs increase the mass and solves this problem.
The charge is also verified (7 - 6 = 1).
However, we will have annihilations between e+ and e-.
So, this possibility must not necessary be rejected but is also improbable.
Proton = 2 positrons + 1 electron + sCells.
Depending of the scheme of construction, sCells could prevent the e+e- annihilation.
Thus, the presence of sCells increases the mass of the proton and set its charge to +1.
This scheme is therefore more probable than the others.
Note: Other schemes can also be imaginated.
Any suggestion can be sent to the author (see the "contact" section).
If such a suggestion works, it will be included in this website, with the name of its author.
The Basic Particles of the Universe
Another question occurs: "At the origin of the universe, what were the basic particles?"
Physicists consider that electrons and u/d quarks, from the Standard Model, are the basic building blocks
of the universe.
If we consider that the particles of 2nd and 3rd groups of the Standard Model (see the Standard Model section)
are particles of the first group in excited states, only eight particles can be considered:
u quarks, d quarks, antiup quarks, antidown quarks, neutrinos, antineutrinos, electrons and positrons.
It is impossible, or at least highly
improbable, that the universe was
created with so many different charges:
- 1, - 2/3, -1/3, 0, +1/3, +2/3 and +1
Basic particles: Electrons and Positrons?
It is obvious that the universe was created in a very simple state. It is a necessity.
The simplest is the best.
Its symmetry was elementary, probably originating with only one particle.
This original particle(s) remain(s) to be determined.
If physicists were to choose a particle among the 24 of the Standard Model, it would almost certainly be the electron.
It is a logical choice.
Since the electron charge is - 1, we need at least an opposite charge of +1 to preserve the symmetry (Dirac,
Feynman) and to build other particles.
Thus, the second particle to be considered is, by necessity, the positron.
It is therefore logical to think that the creation of all the particles in the universe are issued from only two
basic particles, the electron and the positron.
ALL PARTICLES of the universe
are probably made up with
Electrons and Positrons
Now, let's examine the following table, which summarizes some well-known particles.
This table is not exact because we have omitted the neutrinos.
Moreover, the neutron or antineutron are not exactly a neutral proton.
Lastly, the majority of particles are combinations of quarks, but neutral quarks do not exist.
So, this table is nothing but a simple indication showing that the particles are grouped in three's.
A similar approach has already been used in physics with Lie Groups (from Hermann Weyl Works).
Despite these few objections, a particle is missing in this table, the neutral electron, or sCell.
Existence of sCells
sCell seem to be necessary for the following reasons:
Electromagnetism and gravity
These two forces suggest that spacetime has necessarily a sub-structure.
Elements of this sub-structure are "sCells".
The charge of proton
sCells explain the perfect equality between the charge of protons and electrons.
Creation of the universe
The creation of the universe requires one, two or three particles, no more.
The neutral electron (sCell)
The above figure shows that the neutral electron is missing.
According to Max Planck (Nobel Prize 1918 ), all components of the universe are quantified.
It does not mean that spacetime is also quantified, but it is an interesting point of view.
It is impossible to build quarks with integers charges such as -1 (electrons) or +1 (positrons).
A neutral charge such as sCell is necessary to prevent repulsion between charges of the same polarity.
Antimatter of the universe
sCells give the solution to one of the greatest enigmas of physics:
where is the antimatter in the universe? (see the next pages)
EM and spin
sCells perfectly explain the EM field, and probably of the spin too (see Part 4 of the Spacetime Model).
Enigmas of Physics
sCells explains several enigmas of physics such as the quantum levels in atoms, the Schrodinger Model, anomaly
of the E0 energy level, EPR and Young Slits, existence of the photons, the Heisenberg Uncertainly Relation...
So, we may reasonably consider that:
If sCells solve so many enigmas of physics,
it can't be merely a simple coincidence.
However, at the present time, sCells have never been detected because, like neutrinos, they have no charge (*).
The neutrino was predicted by the measurement of the momentum, as Wolfgang Pauli (Nobel Prize 1945) did in 1930.
This is not the case with sCells.
That is the difficulty.
The only way to prove their existence is from an indirect way and by deductions.
(*) Not exactly. Our website www.what-is-matter.com
explains that the neutrino has a very weak charge of a fraction of 1 ppm.
Properties of sCells
If sCells exist, we can imagine their properties which could be:
A sCell has a "closed volume" equivalence of 511 KeV but, since it cannot be moved, it does not curve spacetime.
It means that sCell are massless.
Please see www.mass-gravity.com.
Their relative density of spacetime, i.e. their charge, must be null.
Since a sCell does not have any charge, it is not possible to move it or to detect it.
The neutral charge of a sCell can be split in two symmetrical charges, -1 and +1 (see the Part 5).
These charges goes in other sCells to make an electron-positron pair.
So, if the universe began with only sCells, there should be strictly as many electrons
as positrons. This assertion is demonstrated with a formulae in the following pages.
Basic Components of the Universe
Considering that the universe was created with only three particles including the sCell is much more
probable that the creation of the 24 different particles of the Standard Model.
To understand the sCells Concept, let's take the example of water.
In everyday life, water is like a continuum.
In reality, water is made of molecules which are quanta.
Spacetime is like water.
We think that it is a continuum, but in reality spacetime is made of sCells.
Since gravitational waves are spacetime movements, they can be identified to eddies in water.
The electromagnetic waves (gammas...) can be assimilated to thermal agitation (vibrations) of H2O molecules.
A stone in water makes a displacement of water.
Forces appears on the surface of the stone.
These forces, in spacetime, are GRAVITATION.
The same water has a temperature, which is due to vibrations at the molecule level.
In spacetime, these forces are assimilated to ELECTROMAGNETISM.
NOTE: We will see in Part 5 that the three basic forces, i.e. gravitation, electroweak and
strong nuclear force, can be reduced to the two forces here shown.