Part 3

# Standard Model

The Standard Model does not take into account the origin of quarks. Our theory, the Spacetime Model, considers that quarks are made of electrons and positrons. Moreover, it also shows that the presence of neutrinos in the Standard Model is very debatable.

This chapter is therefore a complement to the Standard Model and explains its construction.

This webpage is the fifth part of the website http://www.quarks-antimatter.com
It is strongly suggested to also read the first four pages.

## Basic particles

We have seen in the previous pages the scheme of the construction of quarks.

The s, c, b and t quarks may be built with electrons and positrons, like the u and d quarks, with particular schemes and energy levels. This is also the case with the two other leptons, the muon and the tau, which probably come from the electron. To date, we do not know the internal constitution of all these particles, but it is probable that they are made of electrons and positrons, i.e. sCells. Therefore, these particles have not been represented in the following figures.

## Neutrinos

Within the Spacetime Model, the properties of neutrinos are not in accordance with the Standard Model. Here are the main points:

• Neutrinos
Neutrinos seem to be backward movements in spacetime (see Part 2). Sometimes, a simple annihilation can produce this backward movement. Sometimes, various interactions are responsible. This means that neutrinos may depend on the interaction, but since particles can be transformed in gammas and conversely, this point is not important. So, neutrinos are not basic particles as we think, but rather a kind of secondary effect.
• Mass
The mass, or more precisely the closed volume (see Part 1) of neutrinos, should be equal to the very slight difference in the closed volumes of particles involved in the interaction. If the neutrino comes from an e+e- annihilation for example, its mass is equal to the extremely low difference of mass between the electron and the positron. As stated in Part 2, the neutrino seems to be a residual particle, more exactly a residual wave.
• Charge
The Spacetime Model predicts that neutrinos would have a very small charge, lower than a few ppm. Usually, physicists consider that the charge has an integer value of -1, 0 or +1, except for quarks and some particles such as the D++. This is why the neutrino's charge has always been considered equal to zero. In an e+e- annihilation, a possible charge of the neutrino would be equal to:

q = (Ma - Mb)/Ma 1.602 x 10-19 C

Where:
q = charge of the neutrino, in Coulombs
Ma, Mb = mass, or closed volume (see Part 1), of the electron and positron. This expression is (Ma - Mb)/Ma if Ma > Mb, or (Mb - Ma)/Mb if Mb > Ma.

• Charge polarity
The charge should have the polarity of the particle having the greatest mass (closed volume). To date, we do not know with accuracy the masses of the positron and the electron.
• Spin
Since the neutrino comes from an electron or a positron, its spin must be 1/2. Experimentation confirms this point of view.
• Neutral charge
In the Spacetime Model, the only basic neutral particle that could exist is the sCell. A neutral particle like the neutrino should not exist.

Maybe these deductions and those of Part 2 are wrong, but they are much more credible than the current explanation, i.e. "Neutrinos come from nowhere...". This is the case for example of the e+e- annihilation which considers that the anti-neutrino comes from nowhere. Such an explanation is totally inacceptable in a scientific point of view.