Creation of the Universe

Part 5

Spacetime Model


Creation of the Universe

This webpage proposes two scenarios having a common process of creation (in blue). These two scenarios differs only in phases t3 and t4 (in light yellow).

This webpage is the last page of the website
It is strongly suggested to also read the previous four pages.


Scenario A

Matter is created randomly after the creation of sCells. The charge is duplicated from sCell to sCell. Electrons and positrons could be "manufactured" in this way. The movements in spacetime produce gammas, which can make other electron-positron pairs and so on...

universe_scenario_a.gif - Creation of the Universe


Scenario B

Due to chance, the charge of a sCell is shifted to another sCell, thus creating an electron-positron pair. This pair, which is a sort of "malfunction of nature", is replicated, and so on, in accordance with the formula x = c.t.

universe_scenario_b.gif - Creation of the Universe


Solved enigmas

It seems that scenario B is more credible than scenario A. The main advantages of scenario B are:

  • Same phenomena on Earth
    All these phenomena have their equivalent on Earth. Since Nature always tends to repeat itself, the scenario B is much more credible than the unexplained and irrational Big-Bang.
  • The electron enigma
    The Big Bang Theory does not explain the electron enigma discussed at the beginning of this website. Scenario B solves this enigma. The sCell, whose mass is 510.998918 KeV, is replicated billions of billions of times.
  • Starting from nothing
    Scenario B starts from nothing. No time, no space. Time and space are created mutually according to the Minkowski Formula Dx = c.Dt. This process is probably due to chance but other explanations are also possible.
  • Density of matter
    "Manufacture accidents", which transform a sCell in an e+e- pair, have a very low probability to occur: 10-40, 10-60, 10-80? The electron-positron/sCell ratio is in the same order of magnitude. This ratio is in accordance with experimental measurements, which state that the average density of matter in the universe is very low, only a few electrons per m3.
  • Spacetime
    This scenario gives a physical explanation of spacetime: "A time Dt creates a space Dx or the converse".
  • Charge of electron-positron pairs
    The charge is transferred from one sCell to another. The +Dq of the one corresponds to -Dq of the other. This explains why electrons and positrons have precisely the same charge in absolute value and, consequently, solves the enigma of the charge of the proton which is equal to that of the electron. It also solves the enigma of antimatter (see below).
  • Expansion of the universe
    This scenario also solves the enigma surrounding the expansion of the universe. Time (unfortunately) continues to run. We can not stop it. In accordance with the Dx = c.Dt formula, each second of our life creates 300,000 km of space, or more precisely, of sCells.

    Time, which continuously runs, is the best proof of the perpetual
    creation of the universe, and thus of its expansion

  • Antimatter
    This subject has already been covered mainly in Part 3. These scenarios of the creation of the universe also explain the location of antimatter. Indeed, each electron created has its counterpart, the positron, which is, by necessity, close to it. It explains where is the antimatter of the universe: into the quarks, under our eyes.
    Another interesting thing to consider is that there are as many electrons as positrons in the universe. With these scenarios, it is IMPOSSIBLE to find one electron or positron in excess. We have precisely the same number of each since electrons and positrons are built by pairs. Moreover, the whole charge of the universe is strictly equal to zero.

To make an electron-positron pair, a part of the density of spacetime (= charge) is transferred from one sCell to another. Let's assume that the density of spacetime has the value of 100. The amount of each part is probably due to chance as well. It may be, for example, 5%. In this case, the electron would have a density of -5%, i.e. 95, whereas the positron would have +5%, i.e. 105. If this was the case, in others galactic clusters, we may have some electrons and positrons having the same closed volume (= mass), but with different charges. This could have many consequences, such as the missing mass of the universe. Another example is "dark matter". Indeed, a different charge also means a different value of c, the speed of light (Maxwell equations). This subject is not covered by the present website but it would be interesting to thoroughly study this topic.


The Horizon Enigma

In any direction, the deep sky temperature is constant, about 2.7°K. This is why the "Inflate Model" has been added to the Big-Bang Theory. The Spacetime Model does not agree these theories for the reasons explained in the next section. A much more interesting solution is here described.

The e+e- pairs are created randomly. So, small "islands" of matter are created without any relation to each other. The perpetual creation of matter is due only to chance.

The 2.7°K temperature is an average temperature of a vacuum and small small islands of matter. The spatial distribution of the 2.7°K temperature seems to confirm this scenario.

universe_distribution.gif - Creation of the Universe


Assumption of the Big-Bang

The following table compares the current Big-Bang Theory to that here described. The main enigma to be solved is obviously the "Electron Enigma" (see the third page "Universe" of this website).

We can compare the Big-Bang Theory to a volcano. Is it credible to think that a volcano can emit millions of stones of 510,998918 gr. each, with a precision of 0,0000086%? Moreover, why would the amount of matter be exactly identical to that of antimatter under these conditions?

From a scientific point of view, the Big-Bang has too many inconsistencies to be credible and must replaced by a more consistent theory. This website proposes one of these alternatives to the Big Bang. No one knows the truth but one thing is sure: the theory here presented is much more consistent than the Big-Bang.

All these questions are logically and rationally answered within the proposed model, the Spacetime Model. Each enigma below is fully explained in the preceding webpages.

universe.gif - Creation of the Universe