The origin of the universe poses a fundamental question: the "enigma of the electron" (see below).
This question is of great importance because it allows only two solutions explained below.

Since the Big-Bang does not solve this enigma, we can consider that this theory is not credible.
The discovery of the 4°K temperature of the deep universe does not prove anything
about the speculation of the existence of the Big-Bang.

This webpage is the third page of the website
http://www.forces-universe.com
It is strongly suggested to also read the previous two pages.

Problem to Solve

Let's imagine the following scenario:

A chairman says to a production engineer:

"In my factory, we make packets of sugar of 500 g.
With the packaging, the total weight is exactly 510.998918 g.
The precision is 0.0000086%."

And he adds...
"We obtain the same precision in all our production.
We can manufacture millions of packets of sugar always having the same weight of 510.998918 g. each.
We are sure that this accuracy of 0.0000086% is reached with each packet without carrying out any control..."

The production engineer can only be challenged by such a remark.

Indeed, every one knows that, in any production in the world, it is very difficult to obtain 0.001% tolerance without
any control.
To reach a tolerance of 0.0000086% with repeatability of billions and billions of pieces without any control
is simply... IMPOSSIBLE.

In such a case, a trick or a gimmick must be suspected.
It is obvious that such an assertion needs a rational explanation.

The Enigma of Electron

The "enigma of electron" is exactly this scenario.

Electrons and positrons in Europe, in America, in Asia... always have the same mass of 510.998918 KeV.
This mass is measured with an incredible precision of +/- 0.000044 KeV (LBL and CODATA 2012), i.e.:

< 0.0000086% !!!

We must understand that the universe is a kind of machine manufacturing electrons and positrons in astronomical
quantity, with a mass of 510.998918 KeV and precision 0.0000086%.
So, undoubtedly, there is a "trick" somewhere.
So, the fundamental challenge is ...to find this trick.

The Big-Bang Theory says: "Matter came from a Planck Length".
This so-called "scientific" assertion is identical to "God made the Universe".

These two assertions does not explain anything.
So, the Big-Bang explanation of Planck Lenght can not be accepted because 1/ it does not solve the electron enigma,
and 2/ it is not a scientific point of view but a religious one (Big-Bang = God).

Two Possibilities

This question may have many solutions, but two seem obvious:

Division of spacetime

Multiplication of sCells

These two solutions are very similar and are studied in the following section.
The second solution seems to be the most credible.

Division of spacetime

This scenario is explained in the following figures.

Spacetime is initially created in three parts: neutral, negative and positive.
The positive spacetime densities are in red. The charge symmetry is conserved.

A binary division takes place: 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 ... 2n. It is repeated until reaching the quantum 511 KeV.
With this limit, each element will have exactly 1/2n of the total volume of the universe.
We thus obtain strictly identical volumes.

Multiplication of sCells

The previous scenario explains the quantum of 511 KeV but does not solve the creation of spacetime.

Another scenario is explained in the next two webpages "Replication" and "Creation".
This scenario is more credible than the preceding one and the Big-Bang.